分类
科研学习

工科学术英语写作学习之段落流畅 [学术英语写作]

工科学术英语写作时(其实所有学术英语写作皆如此),文章、段落中的句子应该被很好地组织并连接,这样才会有较好的流畅性,使得文章清晰易懂并且富有逻辑性。通常可以通过以下两种方法达到:

1. 围绕观点句展开段落写作

段落中的句子必须要很好地组织起来。一般而言,每个段落都要有一个观点句,即所谓的topic sentence, 观点句常常在段首——当然也存在不在句首的情况,尤其是说明(introduction)和讨论(discussion)部分。围绕观点句,就可以在段落中展开写作。

围绕观点句进行展开行文写作分两种情况:

1) 第一种是每个新句子都接着上个句子向前推进(类似于电路中的串行);

academic-writing (1)

2) 第二种情况是观点句外的每个句子都对观点句进行阐述(类似于电路中的并行)。

academic-writing (2)

2. 厘清各个观点之间的关系

不同的观点(比较,因果等)之间的关系必须要表达清楚,而不能让读者再去分析。这个问题采用的方法主要有以下几种:

1) 用概括性的词语形容前面所说的内容,比如:another approach, this process;

Example: It was observed that this approach resulted in a relatively narrow elution window within each fraction on the second column. This result was not totally unexpected since compounds eluting in the 15 s fraction should have comparable polarities.

2) 采用连接词或短语来表明句子之间的关系;

Example: Unlike…; both…and…; …, namely, ; such as…; Not only… but also…; However, …; either… or…; neither… nor…

3) 运用元话语(metadiscourse)来帮助读者理解前后句子;

As mentioned before/above, …

In short, this study …

We refer readers to …

4) 不断重复段落中的关键词;

5) 运用代词(it, this, which)来返指前文中的内容。

分类
科研学习

工科学术英语写作学习之语言简洁 [学术英语写作]

工科学术英语写作学习

学术英语的撰写在要求语体正式外,还必须做到语言简洁 (Conciseness),即用最少的词汇传达尽最多的信息,这似乎是一对矛盾,但它的确是语言简洁的最好定义。

Because of the fact that motion pictures are playing an increasingly important role in our multimedia environments, the focus of this paper is put to video sequences as multimedia resources.

应改为:

Because motion pictures are playing an increasingly important role in our multimedia environments, this paper focuses on video sequences as multimedia resources.

在内容方面,在写作的时候,记住文章的主题和目的,而不能包括除此之外的内容,尤其自己觉得有趣或是花了很多精力和时间的部分——比如花大力气做过的实验但与文章主旨不相关,同时也要在内容的表达避免出现过多重复的地方。

在语言表达上容易犯的简洁性错误主要有以下几个方面:

1 空洞的短语 (Empty phrase)

are in agreement with →agree with
at the present time →now
fewer in number →fewer
with the exception of →except

2 冗余词语 (Redundancy)

yellow in colour →yellow
small in size →small
cooperate together →cooperate
end result →result

3 不必要的重复 (Repetition)

A standardized approach is not always broadly effective. A standardized approach is only broadly effective if analytes perform well on both sets of analytical conditions.

A standardized approach is only broadly effective if analytes perform well on both sets of analytical conditions.

4 不够直接的句子结构 (Indirect structures)

There are many problems that need to be addressed.
Many problems need to be addressed.

It is important that these cases are carefully documented.
These cases should be carefully documented.

分类
科研学习

工科学术英语写作学习之正式语体 [学术英语写作]

最近在学习工科学术英语写作(Academic English Writing Skills for Engineering),为了加强学习效果,特将学习笔记总结,也供有需要的工科科研人员参考。

比起一般的英语学习方法,学术英语写作有其特点,其中之一为整体语体的正式性 (Formal tone),即正式的语气,绝非口语式的语气。可以从以下几个方面着手。

1. 注意用词的正式性

避免采用口语词汇——日常英语口语的词汇;

Improved analytical approaches are necessary to meet more and more stringent regulatory requirements for the determination of impurities.

此处more and more应采用increasingly.

限制使用and so on, etc. 等来列举,尽量使用such as更显得正式。

2. 正式的语法结构

不要采用缩写模式,比如:It’s …, 而应写全It is …

3. 谨慎使用命令式语气和疑问句

4. 优先使用单个单词而不是短语动词

This interaction is made better by other sequence motifs.

此处made better应改为enhanced.

5. 对动词合理使用副词进行修饰

These transducers have been used with success to excite and capture the modes at low frequencies other studies.

These transducers have been successfully used to excite and capture the modes at low frequencies other studies.

6. 避免使用个人感情色彩的行文方式,即避免使用第一人称,采用被动态等去人称化的形式

I will summarize the differences between the new edition and the second.

The differences will be summarized between the new edition and the second.

尽量不要使用人称代词并不代表完全不能使用,例如在致谢、介绍实验流程和方法、提出定义、组织内容引导读者讨论和表达个人观点等情况下可以使用第一人称的方式。研究表明,社会科学论文写作时使用第一人称的频率较多于自然科学。