标签归档:准确用词

工科学术英语写作学习之准确用词 [学术英语写作]

任何语言的平常写作演讲中都要准确用词,更何况学术英语写作,所以准确用词(Lexical Accuracy)是非常重要的因素之一:必须使用正式的学术性词汇,选词做到准确并拼写无误。

区分下面这些词汇之间的差别:

  • affect / effect 前者是影响,后面是作用(效果)的意思,两者都可以作名词和动词使用。
  • beside / besides 前者的意思为: next to,紧挨着;后者为: in addition to,除此之外。
  • base / basis 前者为更为具体的“底部”,“基础”,也可以作为化学中的“碱”的意思,后者一般指抽象意义上的“基础”,比如以下例句:

It is shown that the principal stresses are equal at the base of the crack in the direction of its prolongation.

The least-squares criterion can be argued for on the basis of Ockham’s Razor.

  • consequent(ly) / subsequent(ly) 前者用来形容因果关系,后者只是时间上的先后顺序。
  • to check / to control 前者表示监控的意思,后者表示控制(在一定限度)。

关于词汇不准确问题,还有一种情况为一些常见的错误用法,甚至错到已经习以为常。下面为几个例子:

  • actually: in fact ≠ currently
  • concretely: mainly used in contrast to something abstract ≠ specifically / particularly / in particular
  • to dispose of: get rid of ≠ have at your disposal
  • eventual(ly): in the end, ultimately ≠ possibly
  • next to: denotes location, beside ≠ in addition to, apart from, besides
  • research: an uncountable noun, so “a research” or “researches” is WRONG, use “a study” or “studies”
  • scientific literature: use this only to refer to literature in the Sciences, otherwise just use ‘literature’
  • seen: do not use this to express conditions ≠ given (e.g. “give the circumstances …”)
  • shortly: soon ≠ briefly

以上只是几个例子,在这里土木坛子不可能一一列举完全,需要平时不断积累。